The English Indices of Deprivation measure relative levels of deprivation in 32,844 small areas or neighbourhoods, called Lower-layer Super Output Areas, in England. This statistical release provides an overview of the findings of the English Indices of Deprivation 2019, focusing on the national and sub-national patterns of multiple deprivation with some analysis of income patterns and employment deprivation.

The Index of Multiple Deprivation follows an established methodological framework in broadly defining deprivation to encompass a wide range of an individual’s living conditions. People may be considered to be living in poverty if they lack the financial resources to meet their needs, whereas people can be regarded as deprived if they lack any kind of resources, not just income. Therefore, 7 domains of deprivation are weighted to measure relative deprivation of neighbourhoods and rankings in relation to other areas in England. 

Local authority districts in London have seen a relative decrease in their levels of deprivation between the IMD2015 and the IMD2019. According to the IMD2019, only three London Boroughs are ranked in the most deprived three deciles (Hackney, Haringey Kensington and Chelsea), down from 8 in 2015. Page 20 for London Data.

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